Both BRISKEE and CHEETAH are instrumental in giving guidance to policy makers and implementers who need to consider issues related to residential energy efficiency policies. At the core of both projects is an unprecedented and vast set of empirical experimental data from real households – in total more than 30000 households in eight EU countries.

These surveys and the following analysis establish time and risk preferences of European households, based on various segments (such as country, income level, education, age, employment, retirement, size).

The understanding of these preferences can be translated so-called implicit discount rates which are used in modelling energy-demand and macro-economic consequences of various policies. Implicit discount rates used by modellers ere often based on assumptions and scattered sets of empirical data. The BRISKEE and CHEETAH projects take out much of the guess work and instead develop more accurate implicit discount rates based on large sets of empirical research. However, the projects not only help to make modelling more accurate by providing static input of higher quality into models. The understanding of investment behaviour can also help design policies that lowerthe implicit discount rates through effective policies and thus make policies effective and affordable.

The approach in how policy is applied and the differs a bit between the two projects. Thus the projects complement each other.

BRISKEE – Behavourial Response to Investment Risk in Energy Efficiency – investigates preferences of households, such as their approach to risk and the time it takes before an investment pays back, it then follows up with modelling and analyses of policies that address the residential sector. BRISKEE closed in 2017 and all results are available. The key outcomes are briefly summarized on this page, but for more detailed results please see the BRISKEE section.


CHEETAH – behavioural Response to Investment Risk in Energy Efficiency – looks into households in the same eight representative EU countries. However, the vantage point is different: it looks into various external barriers and considers directed policy interventions that can address those external barriers.

Both projects make analysis on three levels.

On the micro-level, i.e., the level of individual households, two large surveys are at the core of each project, in order to gather empirical data from more than 30000 households.

The meso-level analysesmodels household energy demand based on the micro-elvel insights. Here, different policy approaches can be tested to study the outcomes.

Finally, the macro-level analyses looks into the consequences on European GDP, final aggregate demand etc, of these policies.

Some of the outcomes

While BRISKEE is closed and all final analysis ready, CHEETAH is still completing analysis on various levels. However, some conclusions have already been presented. For more detailed description of the outcomes, please see the respective BRISKEE and CHEETAH sections of this web site.

BRISKEE 2030 energy demand scenarios

Insights for implementation

Further reading in the library

Final CHEETAH event
26 November, Brussels

Final CHEETAH conference on 26 November (afternoon). Learn more about household investment behaviour and how effective policies can be framed. Programme to be published in October. >> more


Find the answer on this question among 5 key policy take-aways from the CHEETAH analysis of an 18 000-household in-depth survey. >> More